Additive Manufacturing (AM) Cards

The AM Principle Cards were developed on the basis of AM design principles. The strategic development of the cards is detailed based on literature and best practices in creativity, learning theory, design by analogy, and design stimuli.


The two-sided cards are communicated using a consistent syntax and include narrative and analytical graphics to assist in explaining concepts. Multiple examples and analogies are used to encourage creativity, while mitigating fixation effects found when using one analogy or example.


Further, the cards are divided into four categories to support efforts related to products, business processes, design processes, and printing principles. The final output is a set of 27 Design Principle cards for designing with AM, which were awarded the 2019 Singapore Good Design Mark award.


  1. Perez, K. B., 2018, “Design Innovation with Additive Manufacturing (AM): An AM-Centric Design Innovation Process,” Dissertation, Singapore University of Technology and Design.

  2. Perez, K. B., Anderson, D. S., and Wood, K. L., 2015, “Crowdsourced Design Principles for Leveraging the Capabilities of Additive Manufacturing,” International Conference of Engineering Design, pp. 1–10.

  3. “Singapore Good Design Award (SG Mark)” [Online]. Available: