What are Interviews?
In Interviews, we encourage users to express their likes/dislikes and articulate how they use products, services or systems (PSS) to discover insights and identify opportunities for improvement.
Interviews are used to extract deep qualitative insights, foresights and latent needs from users. By asking questions, we can uncover users' intentions, motivations and emotions when they use products, services or systems (PSS).
Method Card Reference
Do not ask leading questions or suggest answers
Leading questions or suggesting answers might influence and bias the response of the interviewee, compromising on the accuracy of their responses.
Seek what the PSS must do, not how
Be open to explore alternative ways to how the PSS might be able to do what it should.
Go with the flow
Wherever the customer takes you, follow along, and ask why and how questions.
Use visual stimuli and props
Bring models of new concepts, competitors’ products, products related in the system of operating the product, and analogous products. Ask about all of these.
Have the customer demonstrate
Don’t just ask about the product; human language is only so expressive. Seeing the need in action will permit much better understanding.
Be alert for surprises and latent needs
Pursue any surprise answers with follow-up questions until we understand the need and follow it beyond questions on the product itself with questions about the system within which the product operates. This additional level of inquiry usually uncovers the latent needs.
Watch for non-verbal information
Again, human language cannot communicate all sensation modes and feelings about a product.
How the product, service or system (PSS) is used
Target user groups or personas to interview
Seek a diverse range of user types
At time and location where interviewees are using the PSS
Record responses (use Interview Template as a guide)
This video gives you a walk-through on how to do an Interview, through a worked example of a Autonomous Vehicle Design Challenge.
Here are examples of interview notes capturing qualitative data from interviews and interpreting interview responses, extracting latent needs, insights and foresights.
Camburn, Bradley A., Jan M. Auernhammer, Karen Hui En Sng, Paul J. Mignone, Ryan M. Arlitt, K. Blake Perez, Zack Huang, Subarna Basnet, Lucienne T. Blessing, and Kristin L. Wood. "Design Innovation: A Study of Integrated Practice." In ASME 2017 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC), pp. V007T06A031-V007T06A031. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017.
Teo, K., Wee, Y., Swee, A., Altybayeva, A., Gopal, M., Kamiso, N., Foo, D., Lauff, C., Wood, K.L., “Design Innovation (DI) Learning Modules,” SUTD-MIT International Design Centre (IDC), SUTD, Singapore, idc.sutd.edu.sg, 2018.